Malaria Map of South Africa

Avoiding mosquito bites

Precautions that can be taken when entering a malaria endemic area;

  • Mosquitoes which carry malaria generally bite between dusk and dawn. Close windows and doors and remain indoors during this time.
  • Use insect repellent on exposed skin. Lotions and spray options are available. Generally, apply before the sun sets, and reapply before climbing into bed.
  • Spray your accommodation with an aerosol insecticide, or use other approved indoor mosquito repellent methods (burning coils, mosquito mats, etc.).
  • Wear long-sleeved, light-coloured clothing, long trousers and socks.
  • Sleep under a bed-net or in a netted tent or use screens to prevent mosquitoes from flying in.

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Common Myths Regarding Malaria

  • “It is better not to take any prophylaxis, as it masks the symptoms and makes diagnosis difficult”

This is incorrect. Prophylactic drugs suppress parasite development, and therefore, even if not totally effective (due to partial drug resistance or non-compliance), symptoms tend to take longer to appear, may be less severe at first and development of complications is retarded. In the complete absence of drugs, parasites are able to multiply at phenomenal rates, and malaria can quickly get out of hand, and lead to severe complications and death.

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HPV Vaccine (“Cervical Cancer Vaccine”)

Two vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) types that cause most cervical cancers. These vaccines are the bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) and the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil). Both vaccines are given in 3 injections over a 6-month period.

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Yellow fever information sheet

  •  Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes.
  • Up to 50% of severely affected persons without treatment will die from yellow fever.
  • The virus is endemic in tropical areas of Africa and South America.
  • The number of yellow fever cases has increased over the past two decades due to declining population immunity to infection, deforestation, urbanization, population movements and climate change.
  • There is no cure for yellow fever. Treatment is symptomatic, aimed at reducing the symptoms for the comfort of the patient.
  • Vaccination is the most important preventive measure against yellow fever. The vaccine is safe, affordable and highly effective. The vaccine provides effective immunity within one week for 95% of persons vaccinated.
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Hand Foot and Mouth Disease

What is hand foot and mouth (HFM) disease?

Hand foot and mouth disease (HFM) is a viral infection characterized by fever and a typical rash most frequently seen on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and inside the mouth. It should not be confused with foot (hoof) and mouth disease that affects cattle, sheep, and swine. HFM is caused by several members of the enterovirus family of viruses. The most common cause is Coxsackie virus A16.

What are the symptoms and signs of hand foot and mouth disease?

Initial symptoms of mild fever and malaise are followed within one or two days by a characteristic rash. Small (2 mm-3 mm) red spots that quickly develop into small blisters appear on the palms, soles, and oral cavity. The gums, tongue, and inner cheek are most commonly involved. Oral lesions are commonly associated with a sore throat and reduced appetite.

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Fever in children

Fever itself is not life-threatening unless it is extremely and persistently high. Fever may indicate the presence of a serious illness, but usually a fever is caused by common infections which are not necessarily serious.

The part of the brain called the hypothalamus controls body temperature. The hypothalamus increases the body’s temperature as a way to fight the infection. However, many conditions other than infections may cause a fever.

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Patient.co.uk

  • Patient information resource

Patient.co.uk is one of the most trusted medical resources in the UK, supplying evidence based information on a wide range of medical and health topics to patients and health professionals.

www.patient.co.uk

Vascular surgery

Vascular surgery is a specialty of surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction.

Conditions treated include:

  • Varicose veins
  • Aneurysms
  • Peripheral vascular diseases – blockages of arteries outside of the heart
  • Renal failure patients requiring dialysis
  • Deep vein thrombosis

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Yellow Fever vaccination requirements and Malaria risk for individual Countries

The information provided for each country includes the country’s stated requirements for yellow fever vaccination, WHO recommendation for travellers regarding yellow fever vaccinations, and details concerning the malaria situation and recommended prevention of the disease.

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